This spice needs no introduction, it is perhaps - the most scandalous.
The use of spices in cooking poppy
In the confectionery business, in home cooking use poppy seeds, which is sprinkled with baking, prepare the stuffing out of them. Lightly toasted poppy seeds tastes like nuts. They are high in calories - contains sugars, proteins and fat.
In the hammer as part of the spice mixture poppy sharp spices, as a flavoring agent and filler, which is also sometimes very important - improving consistency, weight increases.
Of poppy seeds in food are fatty oil, which has a light yellow color, taste, long gorknuschee. Poppy seed oil is used for cooking, canning, as well as in the pharmaceutical industry, for breeding scenic paints (linseed oil), in the soap industry and cosmetics.
The oil has a good taste, is considered one the best Institute of vegetable oils.
Poppy seed cake - a valuable livestock feed.
The first poppy in ancient Russia started to do in XI century, it is very fond of the people due to its unusual taste - pastries with poppy has become an integral part of the Russian tea table! With the addition of poppy you can cook: biscuits, cookies, cakes, rolls, cakes, pastries, poppy seeds can be sprinkled pastry and can be added directly to the dough, or use as a filling for the rolls, pies and many other dishes. Mak also used in the preparation of oriental sweets such as halva.
Before use, rinse with water poppies! To make the soft poppy can be steamed it with boiling water and leave in a warm place for 1.5 - 2 hours, and then, if desired, crushed.
Poppy seed cream is more common in India, where it is grown and used as a thickening agent in curries and sauces. In addition, Poppy added to some types of Indian bread. Dark seeds are also popular in the West - they are sprinkled on bread, add in sweet and savory biscuits.
Dark seeds are widely used as a filling or additive in bread, muffins, cookies and cakes in Germany and Eastern Europe. Delicious cakes and rolls dough with poppy - typical sweets that are preparing for Christmas and other holidays.
Liberally sprinkled with poppy seed noodles (you can pre-fry it in butter), it is mixed with honey and yogurt for dessert or cooking sauce.
Dried seeds - the original addition to salads, salad dressings, such as potato, tomato, egg and cabbage. And white, and black poppy can grow and add to salads, sandwiches or vegetable dishes.
Mac can be used for breading for frying in oil (such as potatoes).
Use in medicine spice poppy
The petals of the plant contain alkaloids readin, ber-Berean, mekambrin and others.
They also include glycosides, organic acids, flavonoids, fatty oil (44%), anthocyanins, vitamin C. The seeds contain more fat (55-60%), protein and sugar.
All parts of the poppy in ancient times was used in folk medicine as a drug. According to Avicenna, a decoction of the roots poppy cured sciatica, relieve headaches. Decoctions of poppy seeds improve digestion, poppy juice was used as a painkiller. Of poppy seeds cooked water hypnotics, which reduces fatigue, "poppy milk" given to children to severe inflammatory disease runs in his sleep. Known use it as a sedative.
In modern conditions examined in detail all the properties soporific poppy (on immature pods, seed development to make the cuts, from which the air cools and the milky juice - opium). Modern medicine uses: morphine, codeine, narcotine, nartsein and papaverine. Of latex produce potent drugs that are used as painkillers, sleeping pills, cough, antispasmodics. Poppy box is also processed to obtain drugs.
Leaves of wild poppies in India is used as a tonic febrifuge. In all countries - as a sedative in bronchitis. Reduce sweating, used in dysentery, diarrhea, inflammation of the bladder. Poppy plant leaves rubbed warts. Fruits and drugs from poppy used in cancer.
Blue seeds are used as analgesic and expectorant, they are added to medicines and cough syrups. Decoction of poppy seeds soothes toothache and earache.
Poppy plant leaves rubbed warts.
Any treatment is carried out under medical supervision, because the plant can cause central nervous system.
Description spices mak
Genus Papaver papaveraceous, has more than 100 species. Annual, biennial and perennial rhizomatous, herbaceous plants. Stems erect, strong, hairy or hairless. The leaves are arranged in a regular manner, at least - opposite, pinnately lobed, sometimes entire, often with hairy-bristly hairs. Flowers regular, solitary, terminal, on long, strong stalks, some species in the paniculate inflorescence. Petals are large, solid, red, orange, pink, white, yellow. Stamens numerous. Plants pollinated by insects, some species may self-pollination. In the vegetative organs of some species contain a milky sap. Fruit - a box, the top covered with a convex or flat disc. In 1 g to 9000 seeds. Seeds are round or kidney-shaped, small, a wide range of colors, depending on the variety - white, gray, bluish, almost black.
Mack found in temperate, subtropical and less in cold areas. In Russia and CIS countries, there are about 75 species, mostly in the Caucasus and Central Asia. The most common types - rhoeas poppy (Papaver rhoeas), growing as a weed in fields and along the roads, and Mac East (Papaver orientale), in the forest and subalpine mountain zones of the South Caucasus.
Some species of poppies are grown as ornamental plants, such as perennial Oriental poppy (Papaver orientale), annual poppies - golostebelny (Papaver hudicaule), Shirley poppy ...
In many countries, for thousands of years cultivated poppy hypnotic, or opium (Papaver somniferum). From his immature bolls are opium - thickened latex, used to manufacture medicines (papaverine, etc.) and drugs. From the seeds of this plant manufactures industrial oil. Soporific poppy is cultivated mainly in China, India, Asia Minor, Central Asia and Afghanistan.
In Asia, poppies are cultivated primarily for opium, poppy seeds and poppy seed oil is a secondary product.
In Europe, distributed mainly Olives poppy-seed crop that has commercial value in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, Poland, Germany, the Netherlands and France. And ornamental varieties. Only in the Balkans, along with an olive poppy growing and opium poppy culture.
In the former Soviet Union for oil poppy planted in forest-steppe areas of sustainable soil moisture.
The opium poppy is cultivated for medicinal purposes in northern Kyrgyzstan, in southern Kazakhstan, particularly in Alma-Ata, Karakol and dig. A certain amount of opium poppy cultivated in the Ussuri region of the Far East.
The main producers of poppy seeds - Czech Republic and Turkey.
The history of spices mak
Soporific poppy (Papaver somniferum) - an annual plant of the poppy family, has very ancient origins. Perhaps it is the oldest World crops cultivated in Europe and Central Asia from the Neolithic period. Its seeds - one of the oldest spices, for example, their shells found during the excavations of prehistoric pile dwellings in Switzerland. The generic name comes from the Latin «papaver» or Greek «pavos» - milk (content latex white), the specific name of «somniferum» - is Latin for "carrying the dream."
Many people poppy image traditionally associated with the term "hypnotic."
In Russia, the name "Poppy" is derived from the word "to rub, grind» («magh»).
Currently poppy growing in many countries in the wild. Nowhere, however, did not find the "hypnotic" its appearance. Rather, he was bred by man.
Because of the seeds that are used for food, it was already cultivated in IV-III centuries BC. e. ancient Sumerians, Assyrians. The ancient Egyptians used it already as a hypnotic. Ancient Greeks and Romans also knew and used his soporific properties.
With a poppy connected different cultures, traditions and ceremonies. According to mythology, the Romans, the god Morpheus, the Greek - Hypnos flew over the ground, and could touch a flower poppy plunged into eternal sleep any.
Greek goddess Hera - says marriage and conjugal love - sacrificed poppy boxes. In VIII. BC on the coast of the Peloponnese city there, wearing the name "meconium", which is translated from the Greek language meaning "of Macau."
In the Czech Republic, many girls before the new year shirt pour himself a handful of poppy seeds remaining number tells how many boys will take care of them in the new year. In Germany still newlyweds poppy seeds of happiness poured into shoes. In England revere this plant - red poppies adorn the entrances of homes during the holidays, laying on the graves of the dead.
First on the medicinal properties of the latex obtained from incisions unripe poppy capsules, wrote Theophrastus, a Greek scholar. Latex - Greek for "opion" - in other steel mills called "opium" or "opium". As drug use poppy latex Hippocrates. As an anesthetic spread poppy Arabs in Europe, where it is rarely used.
In the Middle Ages poppy used in various divination, witchcraft, magic.
In the IX century poppy came to the East - in Iran, India, China. In the IX century. BC. e. poppy crop was there so well known and has reached such a development, the Turks even included a picture of a flower cultivation in its national emblem. And if up to this time, it was known only as a food plant, from the X century, China began to grow to produce opium.
Addiction to this plant started with smoking. In the XIII century the habit adopted in India. In the XVIII century China poppy craze reached mammoth proportions, and the government was forced to resort to ban the import and cultivation of opium. Spices always brought someone income. In this case, "a narcotic potion" generates income Britain, the famous "Opium War" China and Britain led to the victory of the latter. As a result, China has not only lost the Hong Kong and Kowloon, but had to agree with the unlimited import of opium. Since 1842, Britain has expanded its market and has to import opium freely in China, as in India.
In Russia in the XIX century, known more as a poppy plant seeds gives a pleasant taste which strew different specialties: cakes, cakes, pies, muffins. It is mixed into the porridge, the children slept better. Triturated, preparing stuffing out of him. Also knew that its seeds contain fatty oil.
We poppy cultivated since ancient. The first information about the culture of this plant in the ancient lands occur in Aristov, "In the XI century. Poppy planted in Kiev." In the XV century. Poppy was already common plant in Russia, and in the XVIII century. it is cultivated in various parts of Russia. At first, it sowed the seeds for exclusively used in food (seeds sweet taste, which they cast different specialties: cakes, cakes, pies, muffins, and his mixed into porridge, the children sleep better.), But eventually became widespread poppy in Russia and as oil, as well as an ornamental plant. Seeds and boxes it also used in medicine. In the XVIII century. Tatars and Caucasians were gradually grow poppies for opium and, the largest site of the original distribution of opium poppy culture in Russia was around Baku.
In poppy field crops began to introduce in our country at the beginning of the second half of XIX century., But industrial value oilseed poppy got our only post-revolutionary period. Then she began to develop and the opium poppy crop, whose center moved from Azerbaijan in the area of ??Seven Rivers, where the local Dungan before the revolution were planted poppy for nizkomorfiynogo smoking opium.
At the end of XIX century German pharmacist isolated morphine from opium and temper steel advertise it as a cure for alcoholism. In 1898, the head of the pharmaceutical company "Bayer and Company" Henry Drezer a drug diacetylmorphine (the compound of morphine with acetic anhydride) - more "safe and effective" than morphine. He was declared a beautiful and harmless remedy for bronchial and lung diseases, giving the brand in such a "heroic" role sonorous name "heroin." It was several years before it became clear that the remedy works wonders anesthesia, resulting in unprecedented dependence, causing steady habit in 90 percent of patients within three weeks. Since the beginning of XX century, people realized it, and many countries have legislated to prohibit the importation of heroin.